Maximizing Performance & Minimizing Injuries in Soccer Players

By Sports Dietitian, Barbara Day, M.S., R.D., C.N.

Nutrition is the key to providing energy which can maximize performance and minimize injuries that are caused by an early onset of fatigue.  Let’s face it, how much energy the soccer player has determines how much work can be effectively done on the field & in the weight room. Getting enough calories to cover the demands of your sport & your growth will help to prevent fatigue.  But many athletes may not eat an adequate amount of calories because of their active lifestyles and this situation can have a negative effect on performance. Two other important challenges for soccer players are maintaining adequate fluid status before, during and after practice and matches as well as maintaining adequate glycogen levels which is the storage carbohydrate (CHO) by making good food and beverage choices. But the key is knowing how much is required. Parents and players can check out the specifics that follow which can help impact a player’s performance in a positive manner.     

The Soccer Player’s Daily Training Diet Specifics

How Many Calories Does a Soccer Player Need Each Day?

Knowing how many calories you need each day will help keep you energized while you are training for your event and doing all the things you need to do each day: work, manage a family, take care our your home.  There are some FREE apps that you can use to help to determine how many calories you need each day. Eating too few calories consistently, the player may find they are losing weight which might be a goal but they may also battle with fatigue and then ultimately an injury or an immune related illness.

A FREE app, My Fitness Pal, for your smart phone or online at can help to determine how many calories you need each day: www.myfitnesspal.com/tools/bmr-calculator and how many calories you burn when playing soccer or lifting weights: www.myfitnesspal.com/exercise/lookup. Add the calories plus the calories you burned practicing to get how many calories you need on most days.

Once you determine how many calories you need each day, the timing of your food intake is also important. Eating 5 – 6 times per day will help give you bullets of energy but keeping the calories in line with your overall calorie needs will maximize your performance. Never skip breakfast. Eat or drink something before early morning workouts to get the most effective workout.

To determine how many calories you need each day, you can calculate the calories the OLD FASHION WAY by using the HARRIS BENEDICT EQUATION to determine your resting metabolic rate then choosing an activity factor to estimate the total calories per day.

Harris Benedict Equation

MALE:

RMR = 88.362 + [1.889 X HT (in)] + [6.089 X WT (lbs)] – (5.677 X Age)

FEMALE:

RMR = 447.593 + [(1.219 X HT (in)] + [(4.20 X WT (lbs)] – (4.7 X Age)

HT = height in inches   WT = weight in pounds   age = age in years

Activity Levels

Very Light-seating and standing activities, driving, no regular exercise.

Light – child care, walking on a level surface 2.5 – 3 miles per hour, some regular exercise.

Moderate – walking/running 3.5 to 4 mph, cycling, regular exercise 3 to 4 times/week -30 to 40 minutes duration.

Heavy – walking uphill with a load, basketball, soccer, regular exercise 4 times/week 40 minutes or more in duration.

Very Heavy – distance running, hiking with backpack up and down hills, regular exercise 5 times/week for at least 1 hour in duration.

TABLE 1. Activity Factors. Choose your activity level from the table below. Then do the math.

EXERCISE

FACTOR

Little to no exercise

RMR X 1.2

Light (1 – 3 days per week)

RMR X 1.375

Moderate exercise (3 -5 days/week)

RMR X 1.55

Heavy exercise (6-7 days/week)

RMR X 1.725

Very heavy (twice/day heavy workouts)

RMR X 1.9 

Example, 1300 X 1.55 (moderate) = 2015 calories/day

You can also determine how many calories you burned by wearing a heart rate monitor that determines calories burned. Then you can add those calories to your resting metabolic rate calories to get an estimate of active calories burned while exercising.  Example, 1300 X 500 calories = 1800 calories.

Daily Fluid Needs for the Soccer Player

One can determine their fluid needs, based on their daily calorie needs.  This is just a rough estimate however.  For example, if the 110-pound soccer player who needs 2,200 calories, then divide that number by 30. The athlete’s daily fluid intake should be about 73 ounces.  In very hot climates, multiply the calories by 1.5 and divide that number by 30.  In very hot climates, the 110-pound athlete will need at least 110 ounces to maintain adequate hydration. For example, 2,200/30 = 73 ounces; 1.5 X 2,200 = 3,300/30 = 110 ounces.

But, this is only part of the equation.  Soccer players can also check out the color of their urine periodically to determine adequate hydration.  The day after long practices or hot practices would be a time to monitor urine color. The first void of the day is usually yellow, however, as the day continues the urine color should be pale yellow.  If the urine continues to be yellow throughout the day, then you may be dehydrated.  Unfortunately, dehydration does not go away, but it continues to worsen and the athlete’s performance decreases.  A player can weigh themselves before and after long hot practices or tournament play. For every pound of weight the soccer player loses during practice or a match, 20 ounces of caffeine free fluid is required to restore proper hydration.  A loss of only 1-2% of weight due to dehydration which can occur 15 minutes under intense playing in the sun or after 30 minutes intense playing in normal weather conditions could cause premature fatigue thus affecting performance in a negative way.

Daily Carbohydrate Needs for the Soccer Player

 

Carbohydrate (CHO), called the athlete’s nutrient, has three main functions in the body.  It provides fuel for the body, dietary fiber, plus is a source valuable vitamins and minerals.  The CHO you eat has two fates:  it will be either burned for energy or it will be stored for future use in the form of muscle glycogen or liver glycogen. CHO is the body’s preferred source of energy and is used to replenish muscle glycogen which helps to ensure you have lots of energy to run up and down the playing field.

Table 2. Daily Carbohydrate Recommendations for Soccer Players

●        2.27 – 3.18 g of CHO/lb/day: athletes engaging in moderate-intensity practice or matches lasting for 60 to 90 minutes per day.

●        3.18 – 5.45 g of CHO/lb/day: athletes engaging in moderate-to-high practices or matches lasting for two to three hours.

 

Soccer players should consume 2.27 – 5.45 grams of CHO per pound of body weight if they practice for 1 to 3 hours per day.  For example, the 110-pound female soccer player who practices for 2 hours would need about 350 grams of CHO per day.  The 170-pound soccer player would need 557 grams of CHO per day.

Recommended CHOs are whole grains such as cereal like oatmeal or Wheaties™, Kashi™ or other dry cereal, whole grain & dark bread, bagels & English muffins, spaghetti, brown rice, quinoa, popcorn, fruits, vegetables, etc. Read the food label to determine how many grams of carbohydrate is included in each food or use the apps that were earlier discussed to find out how many grams of carbohydrates are in the foods you eat each day.

Protein:  Builds and Repairs Muscles for Tip Top Performance

Protein is important for growth and development, required for healing injuries, and necessary for the maintenance of body tissues. As our body grows, it uses protein to manufacture cells.  For example, the protein, collagen, serves as both building and mending material in tissues such as ligaments and tendons.  Enzymes, hormones, and antibodies are synthesized from protein.   Proteins within each cell are also constantly turning over – being made and being broken down. Protein is composed of individual amino acids strung together in chains. The constant synthesis and breaking down of protein is known as protein turnover. When protein breaks down, they free amino acids to join the general circulation.  Some are recycled into other proteins; others may be stripped of their nitrogen and used for energy.  Protein provides 4 calories per gram. Although protein is not a major source of energy, an active growing soccer player needs for protein may be slightly higher than the needs of a sedentary person.

So how much protein do you need each day? 

Players need to consume an adequate amount of protein for healing, for recovery from soccer practice, for growth, for the formation of red blood cells and hormones. The active growing soccer players needs between 0.7 to 0.9 grams of protein per pound of body weight. Example, a 110-pound soccer player would need between 77 and 99 grams of protein per day.

The best way to find out how many grams of protein a food contains is to check out the Nutrition Facts on the food label but most meats do not contain the nutritional information on the label but you can use the My Fitness Pal app to find out the protein amount in your food. Remember to look at the serving size on the label and compare it to the amount in your actual serving.

Table 3. Protein Found in Basic Foods. Read the Food Labels to get an Accurate Count.

  • A small 3-ounce piece of meat about the size of a deck of cards after          cooking has about 21 grams of protein.
  • A typical 8-ounce piece of meat could have over 50 grams of protein.
  • One 8-ounce container of yogurt has about 11 grams of protein.
  • One cup of milk has 8 grams of protein.
  • One cup of dry beans has about 16 grams of protein.

The Take Home Message

A combination of consuming the proper amount of calories, CHO, fluids, and protein each day can help soccer players to enhance their level of play and help to minimize injuries that are caused by fatigue. 

 

Barbara Day, M.S., R.D., C.N., is a registered dietitian with a Master’s Degree in clinical nutrition.  Barbara worked as Nutrition Consultant to the Navy SEALs (8 years) and the University of Louisville Athletic Department (10 years). Barbara has private practice, DayByDay Nutrition, www.DayByDayNutrition.com, where she counsels clients on weight loss, cholesterol management, performance nutrition and an array of other medical issues.  Barbara publishes an on-line health & wellness magazine, www.KentuckianaHealthWellness.com. Barbara writes weekly nutrition column for the Southeast Outlook. Barbara is a runner, cyclist, hiker and a mother and grandmother to 13 grandchildren.    

 

6 Tips to Keep Your Bike Rolling Along

By Jesse Roberson

Springtime is coming, the cold air will soon disappear, snow will be replaced with rain, and the green grass will reach up from the ground to meet the warm sunshine. A warm breeze will fill the air and I can almost hear the faint noise of a lawn mower running.  Every year when this time comes I dart to my garage to get my bike and go for a ride.

When I get there, I find my bike dirty, and rusty. I try to go for a ride, but the tires are flat.  So I dig up my pump and air the tires with plans of riding anyway.  Not far from the house I find my brakes make an awful squealing sound.  A sound so terrifying it brings the neighbors kids to tears.  Not to mention I have to walk up the first hill I come to due to the chain falling off.  After fighting the chain back on I decide to head back to the house.  I am disappointed, disgusted, and bleeding.  There is no way I can go wheel around until I get a tune up, so I load up the bike and run down to the bike shop to get the bike ready for the season.

There 6 areas of attention to consider when getting your bike ready for the season:

  1. Tubes – tubes lose air over time, a good tire pump is a must have to get those flat tires rolling again.  If inflating the tires doesn’t fix the problem, get new tubes.
  2. Tires – Tires are made of rubber, and over winter the rubber can get hard and crack.  If your tires show cracks it is time to replace them.  Inspect them closely.
  3. Chain & gears – A bicycle’s chain and gears is the hardest thing to keep from getting dirty and rusty.  But no fear, just get some Teflon based lubricant at your local bike shop and spray on the chain.  Any excess lube should be wiped off with a clean rag.  Some rusty chains will call for a degreaser to be used to clean the rust away before applying any lubricant.
  4. Cables, Cables, Cables, Cables – Check your brake and shifter cables for any corrosion or fraying.  A corroded cable will not move smoothly causing your brakes or shifters to not work properly.  A frayed cable can break, or cut the rider during use.  Also inspect the housing around the cables for any kinks or cracks, as this will lead to corrosion inside the housing where you can not see.
  5. Brakes – Most brake pads are made of rubber and can get very hard after sitting for the winter, causing loud squeaks and squeals. Squeaks and squeals can also be from misalignment of the brake pads.  After a season of wear, make sure to get your brakes adjusted at least every season.
  6. Shocks – Shocks may need attention after sitting for the cold months.  If the bike is hung upside down, or vertically, your shocks will need some maintenance.  Check the shock slider tubes for wear, or excessive oil.  Shocks require professional service to maintain, see you local shop for repair.

When these 6 areas are all clear of damage, cleaned and adjusted, the bike will roll along quietly and easily.   With your freshly tuned bicycle you can get out for a ride and enjoy the warmer weather.

Regardless if you use your bike daily, weekly, or for occasional neighborhood rides, a properly working bicycle will make your experience more enjoyable.  Don’t forget to wear your helmet, and enjoy your ride wherever it may lead you.

Image from: vic.edu

Jesse Roberson works at Scheller’s Fitness and Cycling in Middletown. For more information go to www.schellers.com.

 

Does Exercise Run Your Life?

By Paul Salmon, PhD, MS

From time to time, you hear people * especially those just starting exercise programs — express concern that they may end up looking like overly muscular weightlifters or rail-thin distance runners, as if they have little control over the fitness process and where it may lead them. Usually, this reflects a lack of appreciation for the time, effort, and dedication it typically takes to make significant gains in strength, endurance, or flexibility. It turns out that, whereas basic health-protective benefits of exercise are attainable for a comparatively modest but sustained investment of time and energy, moving beyond this into the realm of higher level strength building or cardiovascular conditioning requires much greater effort and time than most people are willing or able to sustain.

For some people, however, exercise does seem to gradually take over their lives. For some, this process may take the form of single-minded dedication to sports or athletic training programs that eventually pay off in positive ways without completely dominating their lives. For others, however, the end result can be an unhealthy form of compulsion, much like substance dependence or even addiction. Some athletes, for example, respond to the intense pressures of making a team, striving for starting positions, and excelling in competition by developing excessive training regimens that virtually consume their lives.

Ironically, this pattern can evolves into overtraining, a mix of physiological and psychological symptoms marked by fatigue, exhaustion, depression, immune system dysregulation, and impaired performance. Not surprisingly, rest is the most effective antidote. In an interesting way, overtraining may be the body’s way of self-limiting excessive, maladaptive activity, a protective mechanism that eventually gets triggered in the absence of effective cognitive controls. In some ways, overtraining is not really so hard to understand, because of the powerful motivation provided by rewards for those who eventually do succeed in our achievement-driven culture.

But you don’t have to be a high-performance athlete to run the risk of developing a pattern of compulsive/dependent exercise. In part, this has to do with the fact that exercise is linked to such a wide range of motivations, some very powerful. In addition to simply feeling good and being enjoyable in a very straightforward way, exercise can be an effective distraction from stressful life situations; a way of boosting self-esteem and belief in one’s performance capacity (‘self-efficacy’); an avenue for success that may be lacking on other aspects of one’s life; and so forth.

Researchers Heather Hausenblas at the University of Florida and Danielle Symons Downs at Penn State University are investigating this problem, and in the course of their work developed what they have called the Exercise Dependence Scale. They liken exercise dependence to the concept of ‘substance dependence’, as defined by American Psychiatric Association criteria (DSM-IV), and although considerable research is needed to validate this comparison, it appears to make some sense at a basic level.

Using terminology associated with substance abuse/dependence, they highlight the following behavior patterns as suggestive of compulsive/dependent exercise patterns:

* “tolerance”: steadily increasing the amount of exercise to achieve a given effect
* “withdrawal”: unpleasant side effects of not exercise (excess fatigue, anxiety, etc.)
*exercising in longer bouts or over a longer time period than intended
*desiring, but being unable, to reduce or control exercise
*spending excessive time in exercise preparation or pursuits
*reduced time for other customary activities (social, occupational, leisure)
*continuing to exercise despite a problem likely caused by exercise (e.g. running injury)

The bottom line? Determine if you are in control of your exercise patterns. Do you know when to stop? Can you periodically take time off? Is exercise the focus of your life? Do you enjoy it? Remember that moderation is a good principle to apply in this and most other aspects of life.

Image from: www.everymantri.com

Paul Salmon, Ph.D., M.S., is an Associate Professor at UofL specializing in Exercise Psychology. He is an ACSM-certified Health Fitness Instructor.

All Bikes are Not Created Equal

By Jesse Roberson

 

Whether it’s when I meet a new customer at Scheller’s or overhear a conversation in a restaurant,  it is always a great moment when I hear someone say “I want to start cycling.”  I always get a quick recall of my own excitement as a new rider in anticipation of the fun and challenging rides ahead. Making an informed decision about the type of bike to purchase is as significant as deciding to ride. With that in mind, let me review 5 different bikes that you might consider as an entry to the sport or an addition to your growing passion of cycling.

 

The Road Bike

Commonly thought of as a racing bike, road bikes are used for much more than racing.  Fast, light, nimble and smooth are great words to describe a road bike.  Nimble and smooth so that a rider’s handling skills are improved when moving at faster speeds, and light weight so that a rider uses less energy to keep the bike traveling over the rolling hills of the Kentucky countryside.  A rider will have a more forward position on a road bike giving much needed pressure to the front wheel for better handling, at a small cost to comfort.  In comparison to the other models, road bikes are one of the fastest varieties; however you don’t need to be a racer to appreciate the extra speed gained by the skinny, high-pressure tires.  These bikes are not recommended for riding off the paved trail, but are exceptional when on it, just as their name implies.  The price of road bikes start higher than other models at around $600 and require some fitting after a few rides. Fitting services are usually offered at a cost, but a good fit is a must, so make sure this service is offered.  Check out the Trek 4.5 for a great priced, comfortable, light road bike.

 

The Mountain Bike

Mountain Bikes are fat-tire bikes, usually characterized by wide knobby tires, shock absorbers, and wide flat handlebars.  The wider knobby tires and shocks help gain traction and smooth out the rough terrain found on today’s mountain trails.  These bikes can be ridden on anything, yet todays off road trails can include fallen trees, water crossings, wooden bridges, mud holes and rock gardens. Mountain bikes are made to deal with the rough conditions and keep going.  Such adventurous rides can be done year round, are best with 2-6 riders, and can involve at least one meeting with the ground on each ride, and mud.  Riders sit in a more upright position holding a wider handlebar to increase handling and stability than on a road bike.  Mountain bikes start around $350, but if you’re going toCherokeeParkorWaverlyParkto ride, consider the better trail rated bikes from $700 up.

 

 

Hybrid Bikes

A hybrid bicycle is the best all around design to meet the needs of any ride.  Though hybrid bikes tend to have skinnier tires than a mountain bike, their seats are usually more comfortable, and they consider an upright riding position as a high point in their design. These bikes are great for taking a ride along the river atCoxParkand the Great Lawn, or around the local neighborhood, or even doing some shopping downFrankfort Ave.  Hybrid bikes are one of the largest groups of bikes that exist in most shops.  Many bike companies have multiple styles of hybrid bicycles represented in their lines. One example from Trek is the FX series and the Multitrack series of hybrids.  Where the FX series is made as a performance or sport tuned hybrid, the Multitrack series is a luxurious or comfort tuned hybrid, similar to comparing a Lexus IS sedan to a Lexus GS sedan.  Hybrid bikes can range in price from $330 to $2500.  The higher cost is associated with lighter and higher quality parts for a more demanding rider.  Anyone can find a hybrid bike and cruise the neighborhood, or venture further out on one of the many weekend bicycle tours we have here in the surroundingLouisvillearea or beyond.

 

The Triathlon Bike

A triathlon is the definition of a multisport event.  Participants swim, bike and then run, while competing in a single event.  Triathlon or tri bikes are designed to give a fast position while allowing the competitor to rest certain muscles to attain the best performance in the whole event.  Tri bikes are the most performance-oriented bikes of the five described here.  These bikes are very different in position than the other bikes, but when used, have one common goal in mind, Aerodynamics.  Very fast in a straight line, tri bikes are much like a dragster or a rocket, but at a cost to handling, and comfort.  Not good for use off the pavement, and difficult in tight or twisting corners, as they don’t turn extremely fast, these bikes are made for racing.  If group rides are a consideration, a standard road bike is best as tri bikes can present a safety concern.   Tri bikes are fast and fun. They are great for riding long distance, fast-paced rides with a smaller group of cyclists.

 

Comfort Bicycles

A comfort bike, or city and path bike, is designed just as named, for comfort.  These bikes can change in design from the style of a mountain, to that of a beach cruiser.  Made for style and short casual rides, these bikes are fun.  They will vary from having many gears to just one, and depending on the make, they can be found in almost any color.  Electra Bike is a company that makes over 100 different color and style comfort bikes.  All of which exist to meet the demands of a fun ride.  Although you can ride these bikes for over 100 miles at a time, most riders enjoy short one to five-mile jaunts around town, to the waterfront, or to the pool in the summer.  Style and comfort can come at a price, but the range you will find most these great-looking, comfortable bikes is from $250 to $700.

Image from: bikeablecommunities.org

Jesse Roberson has worked in the cycling industry for 16 years and is the manager of the Middletown branch of Scheller’s Fitness & Cycling.  He holds an accounting degree from Central Michigan University. An avid cyclist for more than half his life, Jesse rides competitively in regional road, mountain and cyclocross events.

 

Trek Bikes and Women Specific Design: Bikes Made to FIT Women

By Jesse Roberson

            Women’s Specific Design (WSD) is used to balance a woman’s weight more evenly between hands and hips, to allow a more natural riding position.  This is accomplished in part by adjusting geometry on WSD frames, causing a rider to sit more upright, effectively placing a women’s weight better than on a standard frame.  There are also many components used on a WSD bicycle that are used to make the bike more comfortable and to achieve a better position while riding.  Trek designs WSD bikes to optimally fit a woman by using a WSD steering package, shortening top tubes, improving the seat tube angle, and using better FIT components.

Steering packages include the stem and the handlebars on a bicycle.  When looking a handlebar width for a rider, the width of the handlebars should generally be similar to the width of their shoulders.  Many women riders ride a stock bar that can cause increased shoulder pain while riding.  Adjustments to handlebars help to eliminate hand soreness and numbness felt while riding. Correctly matched stem and bars also aid a rider with better control when riding.  To fit a women’s body, Trek WSD bikes use a narrower handlebar to keep hands in a more natural position to decrease shoulder pain and fatigue.

Shorter top tube lengths are used to sit a rider more upright.  Many bikes are fit to riders by using the length of the rider’s legs and not the length of a rider’s torso.  Sizing a bicycle by using a rider’s torso length positions the body more evenly over the bicycle frame.  Better riding position decreases pain and fatigue in the hips, lower back, shoulders, neck, and even hands.  A Trek WSD bike has a shorter top tube to redistribute a women’s weight between her hands and her hips to eliminate lower back pain and reduce neck and shoulder stress.

Seat position and seat tube angle attribute to pedal efficiency and power.  Riders generally position seats too high and too far back from the pedals.  A seat that is high will cause too much action in the hips and lead to pain and numbness.  A seat that is positioned too far back will cause a rider to slide forward on the seat, which results in hip pain and numbness.  Sitting too far back from the pedals will also cause a weak pedal stroke.  Balancing rider weight over the pedals increases pedaling efficiency.  Trek WSD bikes use a steeper seat tube to position a women’s body forward, resulting in an exceptionally powerful pedal stroke.

Steering design, frame adjustments, and seat position on WSD bikes aren’t all that is used by Trek to make a women’s bicycle fit so well.  Components like shorter reach levers and smaller-diameter grip size fit a women’s hand better.  WSD saddles position women’s sit bones upon the padding of the seat better, and provide more clearance for riders when standing and climbing.  Comfortable hands and butts lead to longer more enjoyable rides.  One the most important, yet overlooked features on a bicycle is color, Trek WSD bikes have some of the best paint offered.

Women’s Specific Design is not just found on performance bikes either, Trek bikes use WSD technology on almost all bikes they make.  WSD is on Hybrid and Fitness bicycles for commuting, touring, or riding paved trails.  Mountain bikes, both full suspension and hard tails, use WSD for off road trails, single-track, or racing.  Comfort bikes for short commutes, bike paths, or around town riding as well as cruisers for the boardwalk and other flat terrain use WSD.  Trek also has WSD riding shorts, jerseys, pumps, helmets, and many other accessories that help to make riding both casual and religious better.  Trek uses WSD on almost every bike they make so any women on any type of ride can feel great, ride happy, and look outstanding.

Image from: www.bicyclehabitat.com.

Jesse Roberson works at Scheller’s Fitness & Cycling in Middletown. For more information go to www.schellers.com.

 

Do Compression Stockings Prevent Athletic Injuries and Increase Performance?

By Stephen Karam PT, DPT

This is a great question and makes for great conversation with Physicians, Physical Therapists, Athletic Trainers and Personal Trainers. The answer is…”maybe and probably not”.

 Let’s first establish some necessary uses of compression stockings.  The post-surgical patient may be required and need a compression stocking or TED Hose Brand stocking to serve as a fluid pump for blood and lymph in prevention of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which could be life threatening.  Another necessary use is for the individual with a significant lymphatic drainage pathology.  They need the compression to help pump the lymph/edema back to the heart and into the circulatory system from the limbs.

Compression stocking manufacturers for athletes have a litany of claims:

  • Enhanced blood circulation to limbs
  • Reducing blood lactate concentration
  • Increased vertical jump (what!?!)
  • Reducing the effects of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
  • Enhancing warm-up through increased skin temperature
  • Prevention of both acute and chronic injuries

What we know is that there is numerous research examining the physiological effects of compression stockings with athletes and performance.  There are a few studies that consistently demonstrate that compression stockings help to reduce blood lactate concentration during tests on both treadmill and bicycle ergometers.  This would potentially result in improved performance with short-medium distance high intensity sprints and bike rides by allowing the athlete to perform at a higher intensity slightly longer.  There is also research that states there may be improved vertical jump height and improved repetitive jump performance by reducing muscle oscillation at landing impact.   This research regarding the improvements in vertical jump needs to be approached with caution as most of the studies have a limited number of participants.

Most of the research strongly suggests that the results they found need to be studied further which is a very fair statement.  They also suggest that there may be no performance improvement in elite or well trained athletes.  It appears wearing compression stockings in colder environments may help keep your skin temperature increased, which may improve some of your joint awareness, but does not provide joint stability.

There does not appear to be any negative performance attributes to wearing compression stockings other than maybe a hit to your wallet, but for me personally it is still a hard sell.

Image from: mypypeline-triathlon.blogspot.com/2009/06/low-down-of-compression-socks.html

KORT Physical Therapy Clinic Director Stephen Karam PT, DPT earned his doctorate in physical therapy from the University of Kentucky after completing a bachelor’s degree in exercise science. He is a member of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). He specializes in manual therapy with a strong emphasis in orthopedics and sports medicine. In his spare time, he enjoys tennis, working out, music and football. www.kort.com

 

 

 

 

Why Can’t I Simply Lose a Few Pounds? Dieting Myths and Gender Differences

By Nancy Clark, MS, RD

Despite their apparent leanness, too many active people are discontent with their body fat. All too often, I hear seemingly lean athletes express extreme frustration with their inability to lose undesired bumps and bulges:

Am I the only runner who has ever gained weight when training for a marathon???

Why does my husband lose weight when he starts going to the gym and I don’t?

For all the exercise I do, I should be pencil-thin. Why can’t I simply lose a few pounds?

Clearly, weight loss is not simple and often includes debunking a few myths. Perhaps this article will offer some insights that will lead to success with your weight loss efforts.

 

Myth: You must exercise in order to lose body fat.

To lose body fat, you must create a calorie deficit. You can create that deficit by

1) exercising, which improves your overall health and fitness, or

2) eating fewer calories.

Even injured athletes can lose fat, despite a lack of exercise. The complaint “I gained weight when I was injured because I couldn’t exercise” could more correctly be stated “I gained weight because I mindlessly overate for comfort and fun.”

Adding on exercise does not equate to losing body fat. In a 16-week study, untrained women (ages 18 to 34) built up to 40 minutes of hard cardio or weight lifting three days a week. They were told to not change their diet, and they saw no changes in body fatness (1). Creating a calorie deficit by eating less food seems to be more effective than simply adding on exercise to try to lose weight.

Athletes who complain they “eat like a bird” but fail to lose body fat may simply be under-reporting their food intake. A survey of female marathoners indicated the fatter runners under-reported their food intake more than the leaner ones. Were they oblivious to how much they actually consumed? (2) Or were they too sedentary in the non-exercise hours of their day?

 

Myth: If you train for a marathon or triathlon, surely your body fat will melt away.

Wishful thinking. If you are an endurance athlete who complains, “For all the exercise I do, I should be pencil-thin,” take a look at your 24-hour energy expenditure. Do you put most of your energy into exercising, but then tend to be quite sedentary the rest of the day as you recover from your tough workouts? Male endurance athletes who reported a seemingly low calorie intake did less spontaneous activity than their peers in the non-exercise parts of their day (4). You need to keep taking the stairs instead of the elevators, no matter how much you train. Again, you should eat according to your whole day’s activity level, not according to how hard you trained that day.

 

Myth: The more you exercise, the more fat you will lose.

Often, the more you exercise, the hungrier you get and 1) the more you will eat, or 2) the more you believe you “deserve” to eat for having survived the killer workout. Unfortunately, rewarding yourself with a 600-calorie cinnamon roll can quickly erase in a few minutes the 600-calorie deficit you generated during your workout.

The effects of exercise on weight loss are complex and unclear—and depend on the 24-hour picture. We know among people (ages 56-78) who participated in a vigorous walking program, their daily energy needs remained about the same despite adding an hour of exercise. How could that be? The participants napped more and were 62% less active the rest of their day (3). Be sure to pay attention to your whole day’s activity level. One hour of exercise does not compensate for a sedentary lifestyle

 

 

Myth: You should exercise six days a week to lose weight.

Research suggests exercising four times a week might be better for weight control than six times a week. A study with sedentary women (ages 60 to 74) who built up to exercising for 40 minutes of cardio and weights suggests those who did four workouts a week burned about 225 additional calories in the other parts of their day because they felt energized. The group that trained six times a week complained the workouts not only took up too much time, but also left them feeling tired and droopy. They burned about 200 fewer calories in the non-exercise parts of their day (5). Yes, they were ages 60 to 74, but the info might also relate to you?

 

Myth: Couples who exercise together, lose fat together.

Not always. In a 16-month study looking at exercise for weight loss, the men lost 11.5 pounds and the women maintained weight, even though they did the same amount of exercise (6). In another study, men who did an 18-month marathon training program reported eating about 500 more calories per day and lost about five pounds of fat. The women reported eating only 60 more calories, despite having added on 50 miles per week of running. They lost only two pounds (7).

What’s going on here? Well, a husband who adds on exercise will lose more weight than his wife if he’s heftier and thereby burns more calories during the same workout.  But, speaking in terms of evolution, Nature seems protective of women’s role as child bearer, and wants women to maintain adequate body fat for nourishing healthy babies. Hence, women are more energy efficient. Obesity researchers at NY’s Columbia University suggest a pound of weight loss in men equates to a deficit of about 2,500 calories, while women need a 3,500-calorie deficit (8). No wonder women have a tougher time losing weight then do men….

 

The bottom line

     If you are exercising to lose weight, I encourage you to separate exercise and weight. Yes, you should exercise for health, fitness, stress relief, and most importantly, for enjoyment. (After all, the E in exercise stands for enjoyment!) If you exercise primarily to burn off calories, exercise will become punishment for having excess body fat. You’ll eventually quit exercising—and that’s a bad idea.

Instead of focusing on exercise as the key to fat loss, pay more attention to your calorie intake. Knocking off just 100 calories a day from your evening snacks can theoretically result in 10 pounds a year of fat loss. One less cookie a day seems simpler than hours of sweating…?

 

References:

1. Poehlman, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87(3):1004-9, 2002.

2. Edwards, Med Sci Sports Exer 25:1398, 1993

3. Goran, Am J Physiol 263:E950, 1992

4. Thompson, Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:347, 1995

5. Hunter, Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Jan 30. [Epub ahead of print]

6. Donnelly, Arch Intern Med 163:1343, 2003

7. Janssen, Int J Sports Med, 10:S1,1989

8. Pietrobelli Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:1339, 2002

Complete References (if you prefer them):

 

1. Poehlman, E., W. Denino, T. Beckett, K. Kinsman, I. Dionne, R. Dvorak, P. Andes. Effects of endurance and resistance training on total daily energy expenditure in young women: a controlled randomized trial.  J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87(3):1004-9, 2002.

 

2. Edwards, J, A. Lindeman, A. Mikesky, and J. Stager. Energy balance in highly trained female endurance runners. Med Sci Sports Exer 25:1398-404, 1993.

 

3. Goran, M. and E. Poehlman. Endurance training does not enhance total energy expenditure in healthy elderly persons. Am J Physiol 263:E950-7, 1992.

 

4. Thompson, J., M. Manore, J. Skinner, E. Ravussin, M. Spraul. Daily energy expenditure in male endurance athletes with differing energy intakes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27::347-54, 1995.

 

5. Hunter, G., C. Bickel, G. Fisher, W. Neumeier, J. McCarthy. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Jan 30. [Epub ahead of print]

 

6. Donnelly, E., J. Hill, D. Jacobsen, et al. Effects of a 16-month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: the Midwest Exercise Trial.  Arch Intern Med 163:1343-50, 2003.

 

7. Janssen, C., C. Graef, W. Saris. Food intake and body composition in novice athletes during a training period to run a marathon. Int J Sports Med, 10:S17-21,1989.

 

8. Pietrobelli, A., D. Allison, S. Heshka, et al. Sexual dimorphism in the energy content of weight change.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:1339-48, 2002.

Nancy Clark MS RD CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics) counsels casual and competitive athletes in her private practice in the Boston-area (617-795-1875). Her Sports Nutrition Guidebook, Food Guide for Marathoners and Cyclist’s Food Guide all offer additional weight management information. The books are available via www.nancyclarkrd.com. See also www.sportsnutritionworkshop.com.

 

Barefoot Running: Just Hype or Legit?

By Dr. Chris Sharrock, PT, DPT, CSCS

 The barefoot fitness revolution continues to gain speed with increasing numbers of people deciding to forgo their ‘fitness’ footwear for a more natural approach.   At the office, you may have stared strangely at the girl wearing those weird looking ‘toe shoes’ or maybe you chuckled under your breath at the power-lifting brute in the gym wearing the old-school Chuck Taylors.  Even in your own neighborhood you may have warned your kids to watch out for the ‘strange’ barefoot runner who dashes down your street.  These sightings along with the growing media advertisement for shoes promoting the ability to train as if you are barefoot are evidence of a new, yet old, phenomenon.

There is a growing body of scientific evidence to support barefoot training along with thousands of amazing testimonials from the barefoot faithful.  In fact, human beings have been participating in athletic events (and everyday life for that matter) without shoes far longer than we have been concerned about purchasing the most supportive running shoe.  Proper foot development of young children is well documented to be directly linked to learning/practicing walking barefoot.   Competitive weightlifters and track athletes have long capitalized on the greater force production and mechanical advantage that training barefoot can provide.  Many experts believe the modern day running shoe is responsible for weakening the musculature of our feet and lower extremities, changing our natural walking/running pattern, and causing increased rates of overuse injuries.  Currently, scientists around the world have turned their attention to the barefoot running craze in hopes of gaining a better understanding of its principles.

Shod vs. Unshod?

Research studies have demonstrated several important differences between running mechanics when shod and unshod.  When running in shoes, the foot tends to land more on the rear of the foot due to the elevated heel and cushioned arch of the shoe design.  You may have heard this referred to as a “heel-toe pattern.”  Barefoot runners tend to land more on their forefoot and mid foot before the heel becomes in contact with the ground.  This is significant because it allows the foot to be more plantar flexed or pointed downwards like pushing on the gas pedal of a car and thus more flexible at impact. This action allows the feet to better absorb energy and decrease peak landing forces.  Barefoot running has demonstrated lower ground impact forces as compared to shod running even on hard surfaces which is thought to be related to the decreased injury rate in barefoot running.  Unshod runners have been shown to have shorter strides, increased stride frequency, and spend less time in contact with the ground than their shod counterparts.  Several studies have reported that shoes can excessively limit the normal ability of the foot to roll inward, or pronate, as the foot contacts the ground.  This limitation of movement leads to the inability to properly distribute forces across joint surfaces and use muscles efficiently.  The result, is a decrease in the efficiency of the running pattern, or ease of running, and can lead to muscular imbalances as well as increased stress to the joints.  Barefoot running is thought to be more efficient due to studies that have reported lower heart rates during running, better abilities to use oxygen, and lower self-reported exertion levels as compared to those running with shoes.   In addition to these benefits, higher levels of activity of the muscles of the lower leg and foot have been documented in barefoot running as compared to when wearing shoes.  It is important to note that research analyzing differences between these two forms of running is still in its infancy at this time.

Is Barefoot Running Right for You?

Barefoot running/walking is certainly not for everyone.  The spectrum of “normal” walking/running patterns as well as foot and ankle function is very broad.  It should be noted that athletes who participate in sports which traditionally wear shoes/cleats to protect the foot should only use barefoot exercise as a training tool to increase performance and not attempt to be barefoot during actual competition.  Barefoot exercise can be used during the rehabilitation of many injuries as long as it is over seen by a licensed Physical Therapist.  It is recommended that you always consult with your Physician or Physical Therapist prior to beginning an exercise program or new competitive season of any kind.

Here are a few medical conditions and symptoms that require further evaluation by a medical professional prior to beginning barefoot running/walking:  history of chronic foot pain, bunions, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, plantar neuromas, decreased sensation of the foot, numbness and tingling in the leg/foot, shin splints, arthritic conditions, and metal hardware in the foot or lower extremity.  If you are in doubt, make sure you check with a professional first.

Tips to Get Started Properly

If you are interested in adding barefoot running/walking to your exercise program, there are a few things you should consider first.  The following is a list of helpful tips to get you started off on the right foot:

  • Call your local KORT Physical Therapy clinic to schedule a complimentary running/foot screen performed by a Physical Therapist to assess if barefoot running is appropriate for you.
  • If you are obese or have poor body composition it is recommended that you begin with dieting and low impact exercise for a period of time until improvements are made.
  • Allow yourself adequate time to transition.  Begin with walking barefoot for a period of time during the day and gradually increase as you are able.  Listen to your body and give it time to adapt.
  • Try barefoot shoes first such as the Nike Free and Vibram Five Fingers.  Barefoot mimicking shoes need to have a flexible sole with no raised heel or arch support.
  • Plan barefoot running into your normal program by incorporating it for a period of time either before or after your usual run.  Gradually build up the duration, distance, and intensity over time.  Do not increase any of these variables more than 10% per week to avoid injury.
  • Incorporate barefoot time into your strength training routine.  Everyone, especially those who only run, should perform a total body strength routine several times per week to increase performance and prevent injury.
  • Begin on soft surfaces such as grass and sand before progressing to nature trails or concrete.   Keep time on concrete to a minimum.  Be attentive to foot hazards such as nails, glass, rocks, and holes in your path.
  • Plan to be sore!  Especially in your calf and foot muscles.  Always perform a light dynamic warm-up prior to running as well as more focused stretching and soft tissue work after running.  Use ice as needed.

Image from: www.timarndtfitness.com/2012/07/03/does-barefoot-running-reduce-risk-of-injury/

Chris Sharrock PT, DPT, CSCS, received his Bachelors of Science degree from Georgetown College in Exercise Science and his Doctor of Physical Therapy degree from the University of Kentucky. Chris specializes in Sports Medicine and Sports Performance and has worked with athletes of all ages, abilities, and sports. His clinical interests include ACL rehab and prevention, Concussion Management, Manual Therapy, Complex Shoulder and Knee rehab, Fall Prevention in the elderly, and Low Back Pain Disorders.Dr. Sharrock is the clinic director of the  KORT Winchester Physical Therapy.  For more info, go to www.kort.com.

 

Four Critical Periods for Training for an Endurance Event

By Barbara Day, M.S., R.D., C.N.

 

There are four critical periods when you are training for an endurance event like a half marathon, marathon, or an ultramarathon.

These include:

1. Your daily training diet.

2. What you eat and drink before daily exercise and before the event.

3. What you eat and drink during long training bouts and the event.

4. What you eat and drink after your daily training and after the endurance event.

Your Daily Training Diet

  1. Calories

Knowing how many calories you need each day will help keep you energized while you are training for your event and doing all the things you need to do each day: work, manage a family, take care our your home.  There are some FREE apps that you can use to help to determine how many calories you need each day. If you eat too few calories and continue to up your miles, you may find you are losing weight which might be your goal but you may also battle with fatigue and then ultimately an injury or an immune related illness.

The Lose It! FREE App for I-Phone or Droid or www.loseit.com,  www.Sparkpeople.com  or My Fitness Pal app will help you to determine how many calories you need each day.  In addition, these apps can help you determine how many calories you are burning during the time you are being very active as well.

An Alternative Method of Determining How Many Calories You Burn During Activity

The other method of determining your activity is just to look at a particular definition and pick what activity category that you think you belong in and multiply your resting metabolic rate.  Some people tend to over estimate or under estimate their activity.  See the categories below.

Activity Category

Very Light which consists of: seated and standing activities, painting trades, driving, laboratory work, typing, sewing, ironing, cooking, playing cards, playing a musical instrument, and no regular exercise.

Light which includes walking on a level surface at 2.5 to 3 mph, garage work, electrical trades, carpentry, restaurant trades, house-cleaning, child care, golf, sailing, table tennis and some regular exercise.

Moderate which includes walking/running 3.5 to 4 mph, weeding and hoeing, carrying a load, cycling, skiing, tennis, dancing and regular exercise 3 to 4 times per week — 30 to 40 minutes in duration.

Heavy which includes walking with a load uphill, tree  felling, heavy manual digging, basketball, climbing, football, soccer, wrestling and  regular exercise 4 times per week 40 minutes or more in duration.

Very heavy activity includes training for athletic competition, distance running or regular exercise 5 times per week for at least I hour in duration.

Then, multiply your ACTIVITY CATEGORY times your RMR to get your daily energy needs.

Women                            Men

Very Light Activity =      1.3 X RMR             1.3 X RMR

Light Activity       =        1.5 X RMR             1.6 X RMR

Moderate Activity   =      1.6 X RMR             1.7 X RMR

Heavy Activity      =        1.9 X RMR             2.1 X RMR

Very Heavy Activity =     2.2 X RMR             2.4 X RMR

RMR X ACTIVITY CATEGORY = caloric expenditure per day                                

 

EXAMPLE:   1300 X 1.6 (moderate activity)  = 2080  calories per day for the a women who weighs 130 pounds. The women works out at least 4 days a week for at least 105 minutes running, weight training and doing yoga.  As you can see there’s a  difference in the caloric expenditures if you use an app based on the exact exercise rather than using the formula mentioned above.  ( 1978 calories vs. 2080 calories with a difference of  102 calories).

 Once you determine how many calories you need each day, the timing of  your food intake is also important. Eating  5 – 6 times per day will help give you bullets of energy but keeping the calories in line with your overall calorie needs is required. Never skip breakfast. Eat or drink something  before early morning workouts to get the most effective workout.

  1. How Much Fluid do you Need to Consume Daily?

Once you determine how many calories you need each day, you can determine how much fluid you need each day.

Fluid Needs = Total calories/30 = how many approximate ounces you need per day.  Example of your goal: 2000 calories/30 = 66.6 ounces of fluid each day.

But you should drink until your urine is pale to clear, if not drink more fluids. You first void of the morning will be yellow but as the day goes your urine should be pale to clear. When exercising in the heat, weight yourself before you workout, then weigh yourself after and drink 16 to 24 ounces of fluid for every pound you have lost.

  1. 3.  Carbohydrates: the Athletes Nutrient

Carbohydrate (CHO) has three main functions in the body.  It provides fuel for the body, dietary fiber, plus a source vitamins and minerals.  CHO is the body’s preferred source of energy and is used to replenish muscle glycogen.  The CHO you eat has two fates:  it will be either burned for energy or it will be stored for future use in the form of muscle glycogen or liver glycogen. CHOs contain only 4 calories per gram.  CHOs are not fattening unless eaten in excessive amounts but can be filling (particularly the complex CHOs that contain a lot of dietary fiber). Recommended CHOs are whole grains like oatmeal, brown rice, quinoa, fruits, vegetables, etc. Read the food label to determine how many grams of carbohydrate is included in each food.

How much and where Dietary CHO is stored

During exercise, [blood] glucose and [muscle and liver] glycogen supply energy to the working muscles. A diet rich in complex carbohydrates will increase glycogen stores and endurance.  Carbohydrates get stored in your blood, muscles and liver in varying amounts.

One of the limiting factors in your performance will be the amount of muscle energy available.  The best way to load up your muscles with energy is by what you put in your mouth!  A proper performance diet can prevent the cumulative effects of muscle glycogen depletion occurs as you increase your mileage. Complex carbohydrates are preferable to simple carbohydrates because they are easily digested, providing a slow, steady supply of glucose to your body.  At the same time, complex carbohydrates contribute other essential nutrients such as vitamins and minerals needed for energy metabolism.

Daily Carbohydrate Recommendations for Athletes

●        2.27 – 3.18 g of CHO/lb/day: athletes engaging in moderate-intensity exercise for 60 to 90 minutes per day.

●        3.18 – 5.45 g of CHO/lb/day: athletes engaging in moderate-to-high intensity endurance for one to three hours.

●        4.55 – 5.45 g of CHO/lb/day: athletes participating in extreme endurance exercise for four to six hours per day (e.g. Tour de France, IronMan)

 

  1. 4.  Protein:  Builds and Repairs Muscles for Tip Top Performance

 

Protein is important for growth and development, required for healing injuries, and necessary for the maintenance of body tissues. As our body grows, it uses protein to manufacture cells.  For example, the protein, collagen, serves as both building and mending material in tissues such as ligaments and tendons.  Enzymes, hormones, and antibodies are synthesized from protein.   Proteins within each cell are also constantly turning over – being made and being broken down. Protein is composed of individual amino acids strung together in chains. The constant synthesis and breaking down of protein is known as protein turnover. When protein breaks down, they free amino acids to join the general circulation.  Some are recycled into other proteins; others may be stripped of their nitrogen and used for energy.  Protein provides 4 calories per gram. Although protein is not a major source of energy, an active person needs for protein may be slightly higher than the needs of a sedentary person.

 

So how much protein do you need each day? 

 

You do need to consume an adequate amount of protein for good health. Use Table 1 to determine your daily protein needs. Unlike fat and carbohydrate, protein contains nitrogen.  The body strives for a perfect nitrogen balance and when too much nitrogen is available in the body, it needs to be excreted. When you eat too much protein, your kidneys need more water to eliminate the extra nitrogen from the excess protein consumed in order to maintain nitrogen balance. Therefore, weight loss from a high protein diet tends to be due to a water loss rather than a decrease in body fat.

Table 1. Determining Your Protein Needs

 

Grams of Protein per pound of body weight

 

Sedentary Adult                                                 0.4

Recreational exerciser, adult                               0.5 – 0.7

Endurance adult                                                  0.6 – 0.7

Growing Athlete, teen age – 24 years                    0.7 – 0.9

Adult Building Muscle Mass                                  0.7 – 0.8

(weight/strength training)

Adult restricting calories                                                0.8 – 0.9

Estimated upper requirement for adults                0.9

SOURCE: Combination from American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada Joint Position Paper Statement Nutrition and Athletic Performance, Medicine and Sciences in Sports & Exercise 32 (12): 2130 – 2145, 2000.  R. Maughan & L. Burke, editors.  Sports Nutrition (part of the Handbook of Sports Medicine & Science series, an IOC Medical Commission Publication).  Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002; Institute of Medicine.  Dietary Reference for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids.  Food and Nutrition Board, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

 

Example 1:         * 120 pound athletic woman who is an “active adult”

120 lb X 0.6 g/lb = 72 grams of protein needed/day

 

Example 2:         * 170-pound sedentary adult

170 lb X 0.4 g/lb = 68 grams of protein needed/day

The best way to find out how many grams of protein a food contains is to read the NUTRITION FACTS on the food label. Remember to look at the serving size on the label and compare it to the amount in your actual serving.

  • A small 3-ounce piece of meat  about the size of a deck of cards after cooking has about 21 grams of protein. A typical 8-ounce piece of meat could have over 50 grams of protein.
  • One 8-ounce container of yogurt has about 11 grams of protein.
  • One cup of milk has 8 grams of protein.
  • One cup of dry beans has about 16 grams of protein.

3 Days Before Endurance Event – ½ Marathon

CHO         3.86 grams per pound per day

Fluids       at least 3 grams of water/gram of CHO to ensure adequate hydration during loading phase.  You will gain weight but it is a transient weight gain. Poor hydration may increase muscle damage.

              Example, 3.86 X 150# = 579 grams of CHO.  579 X 3 = 1737/30 = 57.9 oz.   at least 57.9 ounces per day but drink until urine is clear.

Pre-Event/Exercise

Calories     200 – 600 calories depending on how long you eat before event.

CHO         .5 – 1.8 grams per pound 1 to 4 hours before event.  CHO amount depends on when you eat your pre-event meal.

Timing              1 to 4 hours before event.

Fluids       2 – 3 cups (16 – 24 oz) 2 – 3 hours before exercise, then another 8 – 10 oz 30 minutes before exercise, make sure to reserve time before the event for a bathroom stop.

During Events lasting longer than 60 minutes

CHO         30 – 60 grams of CHO per hour; sports drinks, gels, sport jelly beans, bananas, etc. (.45 – .68 grams of CHO/pound)

Fluids       8 – 10 oz every 15 – 30 minutes . One gulp is about 1 oz. Use planned water stops or use a fanny pack that carries a water bottle. A 20-oz water bottle if filled with a sports drink can supply 35 – 50 grams of CHO and 140 – 200 calories. 6 – 8% CHO optimal sports drink; 14 – 19 g CHO/8 oz.

              Examples – Gatorade, Powerade. Accelerade, Endura, etc.

Recovery

CHO         .5 to .75 grams per pound within 15 to 30 minutes post exercise

Protein      For every 4 grams of CHO eat 1 gram of protein. (chocolate milk)

              (3:1 ratio CHO to PRO = replenishment of glycogen & rebuild muscles)

Timing       Eat and drink 15 minutes to 30 minutes post exercise.

Fluids       Drink at least 20 – 24 oz for every pound of weight loss to rehydrate.  Weigh before and after exercise to estimate water loss.  Drink until urine is clear.

Tips

  • Energy bars, gels and drinks can boost calorie intake.
  • Find an energy gel, beans or bloks that you like to eat, and try it during training before the competition. Never try anything new during a competition.
  • If you use gels, beans or bloks, remember they are concentrated CHOs and should be washed down with at least 8 oz of water (DO NOT sports drink – sport drinks immediately following a gel may cause nausea).
  • For running events like a ½ marathon or longer, take alternate water and sports drink at beverage stations to prevent hyponatremia (low blood sodium).

Resources

Nancy’s Clark’s Food Guide for New Runners.  Nancy Clark, M.S., R.D. $16.95.  ISBN 978-1-84126-262-8. 2009.

 

Fueling Your Early Morning Workouts

Training for early morning workouts on an empty stomach does not improve performance and the quality of your training may actually suffer. You wouldn’t consider driving your car from Louisville to Jasper on empty, so why train on empty? It can cause you to run out of gas. After an 8-to-10-hour overnight fast, about 80% of your liver glycogen (not muscle glycogen) is depleted, so you would start exercising with depleted carbohydrate stores. In these conditions, your body converts protein to carbohydrate in order to maintain adequate blood sugar levels.

Your early-morning meal should be primarily carbohydrate, with a touch of protein to help you feel a little more full and satisfied. Keep the meal around 300 calories or less.  Use the food label as a guide. Some people might be able to eat more or need to eat less – it’s very individualized. But be wise and eat or drink something.  You body will thank you by helping you to get the most out of your workout.

The meals recommended below will also work to get you through most morning workouts that last for less than 90 minutes, especially if you take some carbohydrate to eat during the training session. If your morning workout is going to be over two hours, wake up early enough to eat a more substantial breakfast between 90 and 120 minutes before training. (I drink carnation instant breakfast with skim milk & run in an hour).

Pre-run Meals 30 – 60 minutes before your morning run; 300 or less calories

* Carnation Instant Breakfast mixed with skim milk

* Low-Fat Yogurt plus 8 oz of water, sport drink or diluted juice.

* Breakfast Bar or Energy Bar that contains 3 to 4 times as many carbs as protein plus 8 oz water.

* 1 slice of Toast with 1 tbsp jam, jelly or honey (skip the butter) plus 8 oz water or sport drink.

* Multi grain bagel with 1 tbsp peanut butter or other nut butter plus 8 oz water or sports drink.

* 1 large banana plus 8 ounces of sport drink or diluted juice.

 

Recovery Foods & Meals

* Chocolate milk plus a container of yogurt.

* 1 Can of Carnation Instant Breakfast, Boost, or Ensure.

* Cereal with milk.

* Turkey on a baguette.

* Chicken dinner with brown rice and vegetables.

* Spaghetti with meat sauce.

* Pasta with vegetables.

Sunshine Smoothie

8 oz plain or vanilla yogurt, ½ cup skim milk, ½ cup orange juice 8 ice cubes plus 1 tbsp of honey, sugar, or sweetener. Blend until smooth and frothy.

Banana Smoothie

8 oz plain or vanilla yogurt, ½ cup skim milk, 1 banana 8 ice cubes plus 1 tbsp of honey, sugar, or sweetener. (you can also add blueberries, etc for extra fruit) Blend until smooth and frothy. Frozen berries work well. Use less ice cubes if using frozen fruit.

Crunchy Yogurt

1 contain of yogurt with ¼ cup Kashi Mountain Medley Granola (cranberries, raisins, almonds, pecans, and sunflower seeds). Drink 8 oz water or sports drink.

Image from: http://www.brazosrunning.com/

Barbara Day, M.S., R.D., C.N., is a registered dietitian with a Master’s Degree in clinical nutrition.  The former publisher of Kentuckiana HealthFitness Magazine, Kentuckiana Healthy Woman magazine and radio show host of Health News You Can Use, Barbara has over 30 years of experience in promoting healthy lifestyles to consumers.  Barbara worked as Nutrition Consultant to the Navy SEALs (8 years) and the University of Louisville Athletic Department (10 years). Barbara has private practice, DayByDay Nutrition, www.DayByDayNutrition.com, where she counsels clients on weight loss, cholesterol management, performance nutrition and an array of other medical issues.  Visit Barbara’s new website which is an on-line health & wellness magazine, www.KentuckianaHealthWellness.com. Barbara writes nutrition and health columns for www.LiveStrong.com as well as a weekly nutrition column for the Southeast Outlook. She also designs and presents employee wellness programs to small and large businesses. Barbara is a runner, cyclist, hiker and a mother and grandmother to 12 grandchildren.    

Morton’s Neuroma (No, it’s not cancer!)

Dr.  Chad Garvey, PT, DPT, OCS, FAAOMPT

It has been said that “When your feet hurt, you hurt all over.”  Despite these true to life words, foot pain is a very common problem.  Intertarsal neuralgia, more commonly known as Morton’s neuroma, is one of these problems that is often described as:

          “I feel like I am walking on a marble!”

“There is a sharp/burning sensation from the ball of my feet to my     toe”

Morton’s neuroma is caused when the nerve that lives between the ball of the feet, known as Metatarsal heads, gets squeezed and/or pinched.  This usually happens during walking and occasionally standing.

Neuromas occur 4x more often in women (uncomfortable shoes anyone?) and usually between the ages of 30-50.  One major theory behind why this happens is the breakdown of one or more of the supportive arches of the foot that provide space for that nerve to live.  When these lose their shape, the foot becomes flatter and risk of nerve pinch increases.

Morton’s neuroma is treated in several different ways, with the least invasive methods being tried 1st:

  • More comfortable shoes with a wider toe box
  • Over the counter or custom fitted orthotic shoe inserts
    • These inserts may also have pads or cushions to unload the nerve
  • Antiinflammatories, either by mouth or within a Physical Therapy session and/or ice
  • Manual Therapy to the foot and ankle, coupled with strengthening of the foot muscles, and even the calf or hip

If these treatments fail, steroid injections and/or surgery to remove the affected nerve may also be considered.  If you experience this or any type of persistent foot pain that is interfering with your life, consult your physical therapist, podiatrist, or physician to get (your feet) on the road to recovery.

Image from: http://www.footsolutions.com/foot-problems

 

Chad Garvey,  KORT Downtown Clinic Director, PT, DPT, OCS, FAAOMPT earned his Doctorate of Physical Therapy from Regis University as well as a post-Doctoral Certificate in Manual Therapy. He is a Board Certified Specialist in Orthopaedic Physical Therapy (OCS) and is a Fellow in the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT). In addition, Chad is a certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS). Chad is the clinic director. He is a lead instructor for KORT’s orthopaedic residency program in addition to being an instructor to practicing physical therapists and physical therapy students at both the local and national level. He regularly conducts and shares his own research at national physical therapy conferences. www.kort.com